Big Idea
1. Disability Categories Under IDEA
  • Autism
  • Blind-deafness
  • Deafness
  • Emotional disturbance
  • Hearing impairment
  • Intellectual disability
  • Multiple disabilities
  • Orthopedics
  • Other health impairment
  • Specific learning disability
  • Speech or language impairment
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Visual impairment
IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). 2004. Public Law 108-446.

PL- 94- 142- Education of All Handicapped Children Act

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disability

The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
2. Evidence-based Practices
“instructional techniques that meet prescribed criteria related to the research design, quality, quantity, and effect size of supporting research, which have the potential to help bridge the research-to-practice gap and improve student outcomes” (Cook & Cook, 2013) Unraveling Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education.
-What Works Clearinghouse
-IDEA 2004 & NCLB 2001 requires it
-Cook, B.G., & Cook, S. (2013). Unraveling Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. Journal of Special Education, 47(2), 71-82
3. Learning Strategies
Cognitive Strategy Instruction

According to Deschler & Center for Research on Learning: Learning strategies are used by students to help them understand information and solve problems. A learning strategy is a person's approach to learning and using information. Students who do not know or use good learning strategies often learn passively and ultimately fail in school. Learning strategy instruction focuses on making the students more active learners by teaching them how to learn and how to use what they have learned to solve problems and be successful.

Think pair share (Lyman, 1981)
Reciprocal teaching (Palincsar and Brown, 1984)

Strategies for reading
Strategies for studying & remembering information

Effective learning skills: have repertoire of learning strategies that can be applied in independent learning situations; developed a set of help-seeking behaviors to activate when additional assistance is needed; can organize and plan for instruction

Personal Development Skills – include personal discipline, goal setting, management and organizational skills, self-monitoring and reinforcement, and positive attitudes towards studying.

Time management and scheduling
Self-monitoring and using a to-do list
Classroom participation
Listening and taking notes
Learning from text

Deshler: Multipass – evidence based practice – page 353 in the Vaughn and Bos book

Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1997)

SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) (Robinson, 1946)
Don Deshler


Knight and Marzano

-Institute of Educational Sciences What Works Clearing House. (2010). WWC Intervention Report: Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies.
4. Direct Instruction
“Consists of precisely sequenced, scripted, fast-paced lessons taught to small groups of 4 to 10 students with a heavy emphasis on drill and practice” (Hallahan et al., 2012)
-Developed by Sigfried Engelmann and Wesley C. Becker.

-Association for Direct Instruction website:

-National Research Council (NRC). (2000). How people learn: Mind, experience, and school (Expanded ed.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
5. Response to Intervention
Multi-tiered system (3) problem solving system that replaces the wait to fail model

Reduces the number of students referred to special ed

Provides research based instruction for ALL students at the tier 1 level

All students receive intervention – regardless of special ed status. Before only students that were ESE received interventions – only after they failed.

3-5 (20% of students) at Tier 2 that are not responding to instruction at the Tier 1 level

1-2 (less than 5%) at the Tier 3 level – individualized instruction and intensive

Requires progress monitoring – constantly

Students can move up or down the tiers as necessary

Much more reflective process – look at instruction and teacher before looking at the student

Big question – what is preventing the student from learning and how can we fix that

Early identification for students with disabilities

universal screening
No longer relying on just one test (IQ Discrepancy model)

accelerates rate of learning

  • High-quality, scientifically based classroom instruction. All students receive high-quality, research-based instruction in the general education classroom.
  • Ongoing student assessment. Universal screening and progress monitoring provide information about a student’s learning rate and level of achievement, both individually and in comparison with the peer group. These data are then used when determining which students need closer monitoring or intervention. Throughout the RTI process, student progress is monitored frequently to examine student achievement and gauge the effectiveness of the curriculum. Decisions made regarding students’ instructional needs are based on multiple data points taken in context over time.
  • Tiered instruction. A multi-tier approach is used to efficiently differentiate instruction for all students. The model incorporates increasing intensities of instruction offering specific, research-based interventions matched to student needs.
  • Parent involvement. Schools implementing RTI provide parents information about their child’s progress, the instruction and interventions used, the staff who are delivering the instruction and the academic or behavioral goals for their child.
IDEA 2004
No Child Left Behind Act (2002). Public Law 107-110.

6. Inclusion
Incorporating students with disabilities in the general education setting in order to provide the least restrictive environment. Beneficial because it allows for positive peer modeling of behavior. Controversial.
-“least restrictive environment” provision of IDEA 1997
-Myles & Simpson, 1998

7. Continuum of Services
General education setting
- With Consultative Support: scheduled weekly meetings between the special education and general education teacher; some direct observation/instruction by the special education teacher in the general education setting.
- With Collaborative Support: scheduled weekly co-planning meetings and direct instruction/co-teaching by the special education teacher provided in the general education classroom.
- With Resource Support: special education support provided in a resource classroom either pull-out or as an additional remediation/support class.
Resource support can be either pull-out or as an additional class.
A resource service
reviews current age-appropriate core content,
provides prior knowledge necessary to learn age-appropriate core content, and
builds skills as addressed in IEP objectives.
Part-time self-contained, part-time general education setting without support (no consultative services)
- Special education teachers of self-contained classes addressing SOL content must co-plan regularly with general education teachers.
Part-time self-contained, part-time general education setting with support (consultative services)
- Special education teachers of self-contained classes, co-plan SOL content with general education teachers.
- Special education teachers consult with general education teachers who are serving the students on their caseloads.
Full-time self-contained setting
- All academic instruction is provided by special education teachers. Student has very little contact with peers that are non-disabled.
Special day school

8. Universal Design for Learning
“Making learning accessible to more students in inclusionary programs. The idea is that with modifications of representation (materials), expression (methods of communication), and engagement (how students respond to curriculum), teachers can include a much wider range of students in typical classroom instruction)” (Spooner, Baker, Harris, Ahlgrim-Delzell, & Browder, 2007)
-Spooner, Baker, Harris, Ahlgrim-Delzell, & Browder (2007)
-Rehabilitation Act requires federal agencies must ensure equal access by those with and without disabilities
-IDEA urges educators to consider the use of assistive technology in servicing students with disabilities, to allow a greater diversity of students to be accommodated in typical classrooms (Spooner et al., 2007)
-Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) has useful resources at
-Rose &Meyer, 2002
9. Differentiated Instruction
Diane Ravitch defines differentiating instruction as a form of instruction that seeks to "maximize each student's growth by recognizing that students have different ways of learning, different interests, and different ways of responding to instruction.
"In practice, it involves offering several different learning experiences in response to students' varied needs. Educators may vary learning activities and materials by difficulty, so as to challenge students at different readiness levels; by topic, in response to students' interests; and by students' preferred ways of learning or expressing themselves"
Differentiated instruction is a way to reach students with different learning styles, different abilities to absorb information and different ways of expressing what they have learned. Laura Robb is an expert in the field of differentiated instruction, and, as such, she has command of the theory and research as well as hands-on experience in the classroom.

10. Instructional Technology
Technology used for all students, not just students with disabilities. Larger than assistive technology.
-Anglin, 2011
-Darbyshire, 2005
11. Assistive Technology
Assistive technology is any tool or device that a student with a disability uses to perform a task that he or she could not otherwise do or any tool the student uses to do a task more easily, faster, or in a better way. It may be a simple “low tech” device such as a pencil grip or an expensive “high tech” device such as an iPad. - See more at:
IDEA 2004
12. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) includes all forms of communication (other than oral speech) that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas.
The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC)
13. Individual Education Plan
This is a written document listing, among other things, the special educational services that the child will receive. The IEP is developed by a team that includes the child’s parents and school staff.
IDEA 2004
14. Multidisciplinary Team
A Multidisciplinary team performs the assessment of child for a suspected disability and then determines the child’s eligibility for special education services
15. Least Restrictive Environment
students with disabilities had a right to be educated with their peers without disabilities, and (2) schools had to make serious efforts to identify and educate students in the least restrictive setting, even if that required the school to provide supplementary aids and services.
Kauffman, J. M. and Hallahan, D. P. 2005.
16. Free and Appropriate Public Education
An appropriate education may comprise education in regular classes, education in regular classes with the use of related aids and services, or special education and related services in separate classrooms for all or portions of the school day. Special education may include specially designed instruction in classrooms, at home, or in private or public institutions, and may be accompanied by related services such as speech therapy, occupational and physical therapy, psychological counseling, and medical diagnostic services necessary to the child’s education.
IDEA 2004
17. Formal Assessment
Formal assessments have data which support the conclusions made from the test. We usually refer to these types of tests as standardized measures. These tests have been tried before on students and have statistics which support the conclusion such as the student is reading below average for his age. The data is mathematically computed and summarized. Scores such as percentiles, staginess, or standard scores are mostly commonly given from this type of assessment. Formal or standardized measures should be used to assess overall achievement, to compare a student's performance with others at their age or grade, or to identify comparable strengths and weaknesses with peers. Three types intelligence, achievement, and diagnostic.
Beverly A. DeVRIES, 2011



Woodcock Johnson-IQ
18. Informal Assessment
Informal assessments are not data driven but rather content and performance driven. For example, running records are informal assessments because they indicate how well a student is reading a specific book. Scores such as 10 correct out of 15, percent of words read correctly, and most rubric scores; are given from this type of assessment. Informal assessments sometimes referred to as criterion referenced measures or performance based measures, should be used to inform instruction.
Alberto and Troutman, 2003-
task analysis-direct observation
19. Culturally Responsive Education
One important issue that involves assessment is the high numbers of minority students who are identified for special education services. It is estimated that about twelve percent of the current student population experiences some type of disability. One would expect that the incidence of students who have disabilities would be equally distributed among different student populations. Whenever a disproportionate number of students are identified from specific populations of students as having disabilities, this group is "over-represented." This issue has been of great concern for many years and touches on many elements of educational practice, from the referral process for special education, to the instructional strategies used by teachers, to our beliefs about poverty, race and culture.
Council of Chief State School Officers, 2008
20. Strategies for Students with an ASD
1. Individual work systems
2. Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)
3. Discrete Trial Training (DDT)
3. Social Stories -
Social Stories™ were developed by Carol Gray, President of The Gray Center

21. Transition Planning
Transition is moving from one program to another
  • o Transition is from 36 months to 22 years – children and youth with special needs (Florida – usually, this begins with a DD label)
  1. 1. Moving from Part B to Part C- (IFSP to IEP and labeling in school system)
  2. 2. Pre-k to K – Assessment, Identification, intervention preparation
  3. 3. Elementary years- Specific needs of Individual IEP, LRE, Participation in General curriculum
  4. 4. Elementary to Middle- Environmental changes, diff. expectations, social needs, organizational needs, potential safety issues
  5. 5. Middle school to High School- Many of the same issues in Elementary to Middle (just a more intense experience), Students should be on a TIEP, Students will have made a special v/s standard diploma choice
School to work or Post-secondary education- Increased numbers of students w/disabilities are entering postsecondary education to obtain further skills and knowledge as a result of a combination of legislative, academic, and social changes (Gilson, 1996)
  • o Essentials for transition Planning- Wehman, 2011
  • o Wehman & Thomas, 2006 (School to Work)
  • o US Department of Education – IDEA Part B & Part C
22. Transition Services
Set of services provided from the IEP that lays groundwork of what services a student should receive to aid them in their transition from grade to grade or high school to post high school. ( vocational training, living skills training, related services, job training)
  • All educational services (per IDEA) for students 2 – 22 years of age.
  • Transition is from- 3-22
  • Florida- TIEP by 14
  • Federal-TIEP by 16
  • 2004 reauthorization of IDEA transition goals by 16
  • Plan to Address the strengths and needs is Transition Planning
  • Students should participate in their IEP Meetings
  • According to quality indicator 14 -1 year after graduating- 3 areas- work, Independent living or post secondary schooling
  • Teacher are responsible for teacher leisure skills
  • SSI (Social Security Income
  • PASS (Plan for Achieving Support)
  • SSDI (Social Security Disability Insurance)
  • WIPA (Work Incentive Planning and Assistance) Projects – Ticket to Work
Americans w/Disabilities Act (ADA) Title I: Makes it illegal for employers to discriminate against applicants or workers who have a “known” or “documented” disability. - Does not require employers to hire individuals w/disabilities, just allows these individuals an opportunity to compete for jobs & be provided reasonable accommodations for on-the-job success.
  • Michael Wehmeyer , 2012
  • (V.R.-FL. DOE, 2007)
  • US Department of Education – IDEA 2004 Part B & Part C
  • Quality Indicators
23. Positive Behavioral Support
  • o Positive behavior support (PBS) is behavior analysis applied in support of people with challenging behavior.
  • o Improving student academic and behavior outcomes is about ensuring all students have access to the most effective and accurately implemented instructional and behavioral practices and interventions possible. School Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) provides an operational framework for achieving these outcomes. More importantly, SWPBS is NOT a curriculum, intervention, or practice, but IS a decision making framework that guides selection, integration, and implementation of the best evidence-based academic and behavioral practices for improving important academic and behavior outcomes for all students.
  • o It generally has four integrated elements:
(a) data for decision making,
(b) measurable outcomes supported and evaluated by data,
(c) practices with evidence that these outcomes are achievable, and
(d) systems that efficiently and effectively support implementation of these practices.
  • o LaVigna, Gary W. ; Willis, Thomas J.: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, v37 n3 p185-195 Sep 2012. 11 pp.
  • o Jolivette, Kristine; McDaniel, Sara C.; Sprague, Jeffrey. Assessment for Effective Intervention, v38 n1 p15-29 Dec 2012. (EJ983426)
24. Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • o A functional behavior assessment is designed to help you arrive at an understanding of a student’s problem behavior and develop a behavioral intervention plan. To conduct a FBA assessment you will need to consider (a) the type of problem behavior, (b) conditions under which the behavior occurs (including the events that trigger the problem behavior), (c) probable reasons for or causes of the problem behavior (including biological, social cognitive, affective, and environmental factors), and (d) the functions that the problem behavior might serve. (Sattler & Hoge, 2006)
  • o IDEA 2004 (Sec. 615) Requires that FBA be performed
  • o Sattler and Hoge, 2006 (Adapted form for conducting an FBA)
25. Differential Reinforcement
Differential reinforcement of other behaviors means that reinforcement is provided for desired behaviors, while inappropriate behaviors are ignored. Reinforcement can be provided: (a) when the learner is not engaging in the interfering behavior, (b) when the learner is engaging in a specific desired behavior other than the inappropriate behavior, or (c) when the learner is engaging in a behavior that is physically impossible to do while exhibiting the inappropriate behavior. Differential reinforcement (DR) is a special application of reinforcement designed to reduce the occurrence of interfering behaviors (e.g., tantrums, aggression, self-injury, stereotypic behavior). The rationale for DR is that by reinforcing behaviors that are more functional than the interfering behavior or that are incompatible with the interfering behavior, the functional behavior will increase, and the interfering behavior will decrease.

  • Differential Reinforcement of an Alternative (DRA)- identify a specific replacement or "alternative" behavior for an existing problem
  • Differential Reinforcement of an Incompatible Behavior (DRI)- Type of DRA; choose an alternative behavior that is physically incompatible with some problem behavior (if someone scratches their skin which results in some sensory reinforcement provide praise for having hands in pockets. hands in pockets = no scratching)
  • Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)- provide reinforcement for non-occurrence of behavior (if someone scratches their skin, which results in some sensory reinforcement, provide praise for periods of time without scratching)
  • Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL)- Used to decrease but not eliminate a behavior; Full-Session DRL: set a criteria and provide reinforcement if below a threshold; Termed spaced-responding DRL: set a criteria between a response and the next time that will be reinforced
  • Differential Reinforcement of High Rates (DRH)- used when you want to increase a behavior; set up a criteria & provide reinforcements (slow speech pattern)
  • o Bogin, J., & Sullivan, L. (2009). Overview of differential reinforcement of other behaviors.
  • o Taylor, B., Hoch, H., & Weissman, M. (2005). The analysis and treatment of vocal stereotypy in a child with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 239-253.
26. Behavioral Data Collection Systems
1.Define behavior in observable terms
2. Choose data collection system Event recording
Interval recording Time sampling Duration recording Latency recording Permanent products recording
3. Determine Data Collection Periods Length depends on type and frequency of behavior
Select samples that are representative Select sample times when behavior is more likely
4. Collect Baseline data first
Need at least 3-4 data points or observations
No baseline when behaviors are too disruptive or dangerous
5. Convert data if necessary Percentages In equal format for comparison
6. Graph Data For decision making and communicating
7. Interpret Data
Look for trends
If direction is opposite or flat Check the intervention
  • o Lee, David L.; Vostal, Brooks; Lylo, Brooke. Beyond Behavior, v20 n2 p22-30 Win 2011.
  • o Shippen, Simpson, & Crites (2003), A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT, Teaching Exceptional Children, 35, pp. 43-44.
27. Applied Behavior Analysis
Application of behavioral science to address socially important problems. Behavior principles which are applied included positive reinforcement, generalization, and extinction. Focus is on observable behaviors and on changing behavior by changing the events around the behavior.
  • o Based on work of Skinner (1953)
  • o ABA Term - Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968)
28. Curriculum Domains
Domains that are included in IEPS? Curriculum & Learning (includes all academic areas), Social Emotional (includes emotional behaviors), Independent Functioning (life skills, including fine motor), Health Care and Communication

29. Environmental Supports
Environmental supports are supports used in classrooms to allow students access to classroom curriculum and materials. Visual supports in classrooms to support behavior management programs and communication support systems are often used for individuals with Autism.
Assistive Technology is defined in IDEA 2004 as "any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability."

Universal Design is defined in IDEA 2004 as "universal design means a concept or philosophy for designing and delivering products and services that are usable by people with the widest possible range of functional capabilities, which include products and services that are directly usable - without requiring assistive technologies - and products and services that are made usable with assistive technologies."
30. Language Disorder/Language Acquisition
Language disorders or language impairments are disorders that involve the processing of linguistic information, may be expressive and/or receptive language.

Theories of Language Acquisition -
1. psycholinguistic
2. behavioral
3. cognitive
4. social
-Lue, M.S. (2001). A survey of communication disorders for the classroom teacher. Allyn & Bacon. Needham Heights, MA

-Dyson, B. (2009). Processability Theory and the
Role of Morphology in English as a Second Language
Development: A Longitudinal Study. Second Language
Research, 25(3), 355-376.

-Friederici, A. D., & Thierry, G. (2008). Early language
development: Bridging brain and behaviour.
Amsterdam Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

-Ojose, B. (2008). Applying Piaget's Theory of Cognitive
Development to Mathematics Instruction.
Mathematics Educator, 18(1), 26-30.

-Xu, Y. (2010). Children's Social Play Sequence: Parten's
Classic Theory Revisited. Early Child Development And Care,
180(4), 489-498.
31. Standard Assessment
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner. Standardized tests are designed in such a way that the questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent[1] and are administered and scored in a predetermined, standard manner.

32. Alternate Assessment
The Florida Alternate Assessment is designed for students whose participation in the general statewide assessment (FCAT, FCAT 2.0, and EOC) is not appropriate even with accommodations.

33. Common Core State Standards
The Common Core State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The purpose of the CommonCoreStateStandards is to prepare students to succeed in college and career pursuits

34. Access Points
Access points are expectations written for students with significant cognitive disabilities to enable them to access the general education curriculum at appropriate levels.

35. Collaboration
Collaboration is working with each other to do a task and to achieve shared goals.

Co-teaching (Friend, 2008)
Through IDEA collaboration between school districts and parents is promoted. Facilitated IEPs offer teams a forum that can keep the meeting student focused and flexible for open team communication (Mueller, 2009). Research suggests that family participation in a child’s education has positive outcomes (Thompson, Meadan, Fansler, Alber&Balogh, 2007).
36. Service Delivery Models
From IDEA, to include on the IEP:
how often the child will receive the service(s) (number of times per day or week);
how long each “session” will last (number of minutes)
where services will be provided (in the general education classroom or another setting such as a special education resource room); and
when services will begin and end (starting and ending dates).

Critical Issues
1. Over-representation of minorities
IDEA includes provisions that will require states to keep track of how many minority-group members are in special education classes and provide “comprehensive, coordinated, early-intervention programs” for children in groups deemed to be overrepresented.
Larry vs Riles (1986) outcome of trail was to declare the disproportion of African Americans. Banned the IQ test
Donavan & Cross, 2002 more overrepresentation in “soft” disability categories such as MR, ED, or LD than in “hard” categories such as hearing or vision impaired.
2. High Stakes testing and accountability
Both IDEA and NCLB require ESE students to be included in testing regardless of High Stakes consequences.

International Reading Association states In the face of high-stakes testing, teachers should : Construct rigorous classroom assessments that will demonstrate the effectiveness of instructional techniques to outside observers: Educate parents, community members, and policymakers about classroom-based assessment: Teach students how tests are structured, but not teach to the test
3. Transitions to adulthood
NSTTAC Quality Indicator 13 : 100% of youth aged 16 and older w/ IEPs will have appropriate goals, assessments, and services that will relate to the transition needs.
Indicators 1,2,13, &14 all relate to secondary transition
IDEA students 14 years & older need transition IEP
4. AYP and Highly effective teachers/ highly qualified
Marzano, 2010
NCLB, 2001
CEC, 2013
Good example of why this is a critical issue:

5. Effective instruction
What works clearing house, CAST.Org for evidence based instruction
Corporative learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1989) (Kagan 2013)
Cognitive strategy Instruction, (Deschler, 1996) modeling, self-regulation, verbalization, reflective thinking,
NCLB requires all teachers to use evidence based practice
National Professional Development Center on ASD has lots of evidence based info.
6. Seclusion and restraint
Duncan, 2009: wrote letter to USDE urging to ensure no child subject to abusive use of seclusion or restraint in school
National Disability Rights Network : website for advocacy for individuals with disabilities
CEC has policy on restraint and seclusion procedures
Review OCPS policy on S&R

Special Education Legislation and Court Cases
1982 Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson school district vs Rowley
Right to (IEP) “free appropriate public education”
Timothy vs Rochester
Student with sever disability was not getting educated. Mandated that he gets educated at school.
1970 Diana vs Board of Education of California
Address the issue of assessment approaches and instruments. The decision mandates the implementation of nondiscriminatory procedures for ESOL and ESE.
1951 Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka
Segregation of schools and the provision of equal facilities for all students in respect to physical facilities, curriculum, teaching resources, student personnel services. It set the president for future discrimination cases in education. You can’t discriminate between ability and disability.
1976 Fredrick vs Thomas
Children with learning disabilities should be afforded access to general curriculum
1972 PARC vs the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
All schools must accommodate intellectually disabled students with special education facilities or education services. All students must be provided with free appropriate education.
1972 Mills vs Board of Education
Transferring exceptional students denying them publicly supported education. Labeled them behavioral problems. Excluded from admission with no educational alternative or periodic review.
Disabilities are a natural part of the human experience and should in no way diminish the right of individuals to participate in or contribute to society. Deals with FBA, IEP, BIP
No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
The purpose of this legislation is to ensure that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain high quality education and reach at a minimum proficiency on challenging State academic assessments.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Provides protection for individuals with disabilities in respect to employment, public accommodations, telecommunications, and other areas
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (504)
Section 504 of the Act does not compel educational institutions to disregard the disabilities of handicapped individuals or to make substantial modifications in their programs to allow disabled persons to participate
Family Educational Rights And Privacy Act of 1974
(Buckley Amendment –P.L. 93-380,20 U.S.C. 1232G No funds shall be made available under any applicable programs to any educational agency or institution which has a policy of denying of which effectively prevents the parents of students who are or have been in attendance at a school of such agency , The right to inspect and review the educational records of their children
Evidence-based Strategies General (Some of these are defined above (starred). You do not need to know all of these, but might want to identify a citation for the ones you are familiar with and use. Be sure you know strategies for social-emotional/behavioral as well as academic goals.)
*Direct Instruction (Academics and Social Skills)-
Cooperative Learning
CRA (Concrete, Representational, Abstract) Sequence of Instruction
Precision Teaching
Task Analysis-

Graphic Organizers
Cooperative Learning
Peer-Mediated Instruction-

Peer Tutoring
Class-wide Peer Tutoring
Phonemic Awareness Instruction
Fluency Instruction
Progress Monitoring (CBM)
*Positive Behavior Support
Positive Reinforcement-

*Applied Behavior Analysis